The United States of America, as we know it today is the outcome of a very gruesome revolution in which thirteen colonies in North America joined hands and marched towards freedom form the British Empire. Spread across eight long years – 1775 to 1783 – this revolution is also called the U.S war of independence.
Small steps to the great revolution…
The seeds to the American Revolution were sown by the British Empire as early as the 1600’s with their strict laws and dismal treatment of the Native Americans. The 1700’s saw the outcomes. The Tuscarora Indian War which lasted for two years broke out between the Native Americans and the settlers in Northern Carolina during 1711.
Molasses act of 1733 imposed restrictions on molasses and sugar trade from the colonies. Heavy taxes and laws restricting their trade among the British Islands gained the British more enemies in their colonies. The year 1739 saw a series of outbursts as England declared war on Spain. This war resulted in hostilities between Florida Spaniards, Georgia and South Carolina colonists. South Carolina also witnessed three separate violent outbreaks by black slaves which further resulted in the hanging of fifty black slaves in 1740. 1740 also witnessed the death of Emperor Charles VI which led to the War of Austrian Succession which lasted until 1748. This war also called King George’s War resulted in Spain and France aligning against England.
Of among the many Acts passed by the English parliament restricting the growth of the American colonies was the Iron Act in 1750. The Currency Act (1751) banned the issuing of paper money by the colonies. 1754 witnessed the beginning of the French and Indian war fought between the colonies of British America and France. Both sides saw their share of victories and defeats till the war ended during 1763 by signing of the Treaty of Paris. The British and colonists won this war but this also lead to a new awakening. The colonists learned to fight and realized that they did not need a British army to protect them.
The series of Acts and Laws passed by the British from then on received a welcome least expected. The Proclamation of 1763 signed by King George III of England, the Sugar act (1764) passed by the English parliament, strengthening of the Currency Act in 1764, the Stamp Act (1765), the Quartering Act 91765), all invoked protest among the colonists.
1765 saw the formation of ‘Sons of Liberty’, an underground organization opposing the stamp act that imposed taxes on all printed materials. Sons of liberty was formed in a number of colonial towns and used violence and intimidation to successfully force British stamp agents to resign and stop a good lot of American merchants from ordering trade goods from British. In 1766, the New York assembly decline compliance with British General Thomas Gage’s request to enforce Quartering Act which requires the colonists to house and feed British troops.
Benjamin Franklin, during March 1766 warns the English Parliament about the possibility of a revolution in the American Colonies in the event of enforcement of Stamp Act by the military. Meanwhile in August the same year violence broke out between the British soldiers and members of Sons of Anarchy as a result of New York colonist’s refusal to comply with the Quartering Act. Further strives and violent outbursts leads to the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770.
On February 1, 1775, a provincial congress was held where John Hancock and Joseph Warren began the defensive preparations for a state of war. In April the same year, the Massachusetts Governor Gage receives an order to suppress open rebellion by all necessary force, leading to the American Revolution.